Who were the brothers of christ - OLD

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Blood Brothers

Biblical Argument For This Interpretation

Jerome notes Helvidius was the first person to make this argument:

There are things which, in your extreme ignorance, you had never read, and therefore you neglected the whole range of Scripture and employed your madness in outraging the Virgin, like the man in the story who being unknown to everybody and finding that he could devise no good deed by which to gain renown, burned the temple of Diana: and when no one revealed the sacrilegious act, it is said that he himself went up and down proclaiming that he was the man who had applied the fire. The rulers of Ephesus were curious to know what made him do this thing, whereupon he replied that if he could not have fame for good deeds, all men should give him credit for bad ones. Grecian history relates the incident. But you do worse. You have set on fire the temple of the Lord's body, you have defiled the sanctuary of the Holy Spirit from which you are determined to make a team of four brethren and a heap of sisters come forth. In a word, joining in the chorus of the Jews, you say, [Matthew 13:55; Mark 6:3] "Is not this the carpenter's son? is not his mother called Mary? and his brethren James, and Joseph, and Simon, and Judas? and his sisters, are they not all with us? The word all would not be used if there were not a crowd of them." Pray tell me, who, before you appeared, was acquainted with this blasphemy? who thought the theory worth two-pence? You have gained your desire, and are become notorious by crime.

Adelphos: Brothers and Sisters of Christ

Several scriptures mention the brothers & sisters (adelphos) of Christ.

Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon? And are not his sisters here with us?
- Mark 6:3 (also Matthew 13:55)
So his brothers said to him, "Leave here and go to Judea, that your disciples also may see the works you are doing. For no one works in secret if he seeks to be known openly. If you do these things, show yourself to the world." For not even his brothers [adelphoi] believed in him.
- John 7:3-5
All these with one accord were devoting themselves to prayer, together with the women and Mary the mother of Jesus, and his brothers [adelphois].
- Acts 1:14
Do we not have the right to take along a believing wife, as do the other apostles and the brothers [adelphoi] of the Lord and Cephas?
- 1 Corinthians 9:5
But I saw none of the other apostles except James the Lord's brother [adelphon].
- Galatians 1:19

In the New Testament, adelphos is used 343 times and is used to refer to spiritual brothers and blood brothers. The most natural reading of these verses would be to read them as blood brothers as well.

An exact greek word for cousins exists (anepsios). This word is used 1 time in the New Testament - but it was not used here. (Colossians)

Likewise, a word for kinsman/relative exists (suggenes). This word is used 12 times in the New Testament, but is not used here. (Luke, Acts, Romans, and once in Mark and John)

How then, says Helvidius, do you make out that they were called the Lord's brethren who were not his brethren?

- Jerome quoting Helvidius, who held that Jesus' brothers were his blood brothers.

Jerome's reply:

I will show how that is. In Holy Scripture there are four kinds of brethren--by nature, race, kindred, love. Instances of brethren by nature are Esau and Jacob, the twelve patriarchs, Andrew and Peter, James and John. As to race, all Jews are called brethren of one another, as in Deuteronomy, [Deuteronomy 15:12] "If thy brother, an Hebrew man, or an Hebrew woman, be sold unto thee, and serve thee six years; then in the seventh year thou shalt let him go free from thee." And in the same book, [Deuteronomy 17:15] "Thou shalt in anywise set him king over thee, whom the Lord thy God shall choose: one from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee; thou mayest not put a foreigner over thee, which is not thy brother." And again, [Deuteronomy 22:1] "Thou shalt not see thy brother's ox or his sheep go astray, and hide thyself from them: thou shalt surely bring them again unto thy brother. And if thy brother be not nigh unto thee, or if thou know him not, then thou shalt bring it home to thine house, and it shall be with thee until thy brother seek after it, and thou shalt restore it to him again." And the Apostle Paul says, [Romans 9:3,4] "I could wish that I myself were anathema from Christ for my brethren's sake, my kinsmen according to the flesh: who are Israelites." Moreover they are called brethren by kindred who are of one family, that is patria, which corresponds to the Latin paternitas, because from a single root a numerous progeny proceeds. In Genesis [Genesis 8:8,11] we read, "And Abram said unto Lot, Let there be no strife, I pray thee, between me and thee, and between my herdmen and thy herdmen; for we are brethren." And again, "So Lot chose him all the plain of Jordan, and Lot journeyed east: and they separated each from his brother." Certainly Lot was not Abraham's brother, but the son of Abraham's brother Aram. For Terah begat Abraham and Nahor and Aram: and Aram begat Lot. Again we read, [Genesis 7:4] "And Abram was seventy and five years old when he departed out of Haran. And Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother's son." But if you still doubt whether a nephew can be called a son, let me give you an instance. [Genesis 14:14] "And when Abram heard that his brother was taken captive, he led forth his trained men, born in his house, three hundred and eighteen." And after describing the night attack and the slaughter, he adds, "And he brought back all the goods, and also brought again his brother Lot." Let this suffice by way of proof of my assertion. But for fear you may make some cavilling objection, and wriggle out of your difficulty like a snake, I must bind you fast with the bonds of proof to stop your hissing and complaining, for I know you would like to say you have been overcome not so much by Scripture truth as by intricate arguments. Jacob, the son of Isaac and Rebecca, when in fear of his brother's treachery he had gone to Mesopotamia, drew nigh and rolled away the stone from the mouth of the well, and watered the flocks of Laban, his mother's brother. [Genesis 29:11] "And Jacob kissed Rachel, and lifted up his voice, and wept. And Jacob told Rachel that he was her father's brother, and that he was Rebekah's son." Here is an example of the rule already referred to, by which a nephew is called a brother. And again, [Genesis 29:15] "Laban said unto Jacob. Because thou art my brother, shouldest thou therefore serve me for nought? Tell me what shall thy wages be." And so, when, at the end of twenty years, without the knowledge of his father-in-law and accompanied by his wives and sons he was returning to his country, on Laban overtaking him in the mountain of Gilead and failing to find the idols which Rachel hid among the baggage, Jacob answered and said to Laban, [Genesis 31:36,37] "What is my trespass? What is my sin, that thou hast so hotly pursued after me? Whereas thou hast felt all about my stuff, what hast thou found of all thy household stuff? Set it here before my brethren and thy brethren, that they may judge betwixt us two." Tell me who are those brothers of Jacob and Laban who were present there? Esau, Jacob's brother, was certainly not there, and Laban, the son of Bethuel, had no brothers although he had a sister Rebecca.

Innumerable instances of the same kind are to be found in the sacred books. But, to be brief, I will return to the last of the four classes of brethren, those, namely, who are brethren by affection, and these again fall into two divisions, those of the spiritual and those of the general relationship. I say spiritual because all of us Christians are called brethren, as in the verse, [Psalm 133:1] "Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity." And in another psalm the Saviour says, [Psalm 22:22] "I will declare thy name unto my brethren." And elsewhere, [John 20:17] "Go unto my brethren and say to them." I say also general, because we are all children of one Father, there is a like bond of brotherhood between us all. [Isaiah 66:5] "Tell these who hate you," says the prophet, "ye are our brethren." And the Apostle writing to the Corinthians: [1 Corinthians 5:11] "If any man that is named brother be a fornicator, or covetous, or an idolater, or a reviler, or a drunkard, or an extortioner: with such a one no, not to eat." I now ask to which class you consider the Lord's brethren in the Gospel must be assigned. They are brethren by nature, you say. But Scripture does not say so; it calls them neither sons of Mary, nor of Joseph. Shall we say they are brethren by race? But it is absurd to suppose that a few Jews were called His brethren when all Jews of the time might upon this principle have borne the title. Were they brethren by virtue of close intimacy and the union of heart and mind? If that were so, who were more truly His brethren than the apostles who received His private instruction and were called by Him His mother and His brethren? Again, if all men, as such, were His brethren, it would have been foolish to deliver a special message, "Behold, thy brethren seek thee," for all men alike were entitled to the name. The only alternative is to adopt the previous explanation and understand them to be called brethren in virtue of the bond of kindred, not of love and sympathy, nor by prerogative of race, nor yet by nature. Just as Lot was called Abraham's brother, and Jacob Laban's, just as the daughters of Zelophehad received a lot among their brethren, just as Abraham himself had to wife Sarah his sister, for he says, [Genesis 20:11] "She is indeed my sister, on the father's side, not on the mother's," that is to say, she was the daughter of his brother, not of his sister. Otherwise, what are we to say of Abraham, a just man, taking to wife the daughter of his own father? Scripture, in relating the history of the men of early times, does not outrage our ears by speaking of the enormity in express terms, but prefers to leave it to be inferred by the reader: and God afterwards gives to the prohibition the sanction of the law, and threatens, [Leviticus 18:9] "He who takes his sister, born of his father, or of his mother, and beholds her nakedness, hath commited abomination, he shall be utterly destroyed. He hath uncovered his sister's nakedness, he shall bear his sin."

Jerome also says:

It is clear that our Lord's brethren bore the name in the same way that Joseph was called his father: [Luke 1:18] "I and thy father sought thee sorrowing." It was His mother who said this, not the Jews. The Evangelist himself relates that His father and His mother were marvelling at the things which were spoken concerning Him, and there are similar passages which we have already quoted in which Joseph and Mary are called his parents. Seeing that you have been foolish enough to persuade yourself that the Greek manuscripts are corrupt, you will perhaps plead the diversity of readings. I therefore come to the Gospel of John, and there it is plainly written, [John 1:45] "Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith unto him, We have found him of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph." You will certainly find this in your manuscript. Now tell me, how is Jesus the son of Joseph when it is clear that He was begotten of the Holy Ghost? Was Joseph His true father? Dull as you are, you will not venture to say that. Was he His reputed father? If so, let the same rule be applied to them when they are called brethren, that you apply to Joseph when he is called father.

Psalm 69 (a Messianic Psalm)

4They that hate me without a cause are more than the hairs of mine head: they that would destroy me, being mine enemies wrongfully, are mighty: then I restored that which I took not away.
 
5O God, thou knowest my foolishness; and my sins are not hid from thee.
 
6Let not them that wait on thee, O Lord God of hosts, be ashamed for my sake: let not those that seek thee be confounded for my sake, O God of Israel.
 
7Because for thy sake I have borne reproach; shame hath covered my face.
 
8I am become a stranger unto my brethren, and an alien unto my mother's children.
 
9For the zeal of thine house hath eaten me up; and the reproaches of them that reproached thee are fallen upon me.
 
- Psalm 69:4-9

Psalm 69 is a messianic Psalm about Jesus.

But the word that is written in their Law must be fulfilled: 'They hated me without a cause.'
- John 15:25, quoting Psalm 69:4
His disciples remembered that it was written, "Zeal for your house will consume me."
- John 2:17, quoting Psalm 69:9

Therefore, Psalm 69:8 must be referring to Jesus and his mother Mary, which says:

I am become a stranger unto my brethren, and an alien unto my mother's children.

My mother's children here is unambiguous, and clearly means other sons of Mary.

Matthew 1:25, heōs

When Joseph woke from sleep, he did as the angel of the Lord commanded him: he took his wife, but knew her not until [heōs] she had given birth to a son. And he called his name Jesus.
- Matthew 1:24-25

In saying "knew her not until she had given birth to a son", this implies Mary and Joseph had customary marital relations after the birth of Jesus.

Argument made by Helvidius around 383 AD (recorded in Jerome's treatise, Against Helvidius):

The passage for discussion now is, [Matthew 1:24,25] "And Joseph arose from his sleep, and did as the angel of the Lord commanded him, and took unto him his wife and knew her not till she had brought forth a son, and he called his name Jesus." [...] the adverb till implies a fixed and definite time, and when that is fulfilled, he says the event takes place which previously did not take place, as in the case before us, "and knew her not till she had brought forth a son." It is clear, says he, that she was known after she brought forth, and that that knowledge was only delayed by her engendering a son...

Why could not Scripture say, as it said of Thamar and Judah, [Genesis 38:26] And he took his wife, and knew her again no more'? Could not Matthew find words to express his meaning? He knew her not,' he says, until she brought forth a son.' He did then, after her delivery, know her, whom he had refrained from knowing until she was delivered."

In response to the argument that it's natural for a married couple to have sex, so we should assume Mary/Joseph did... Jerome says this:

 But as we do not deny what is written, so we do reject what is not written. We believe that God was born of the Virgin, because we read it. That Mary was married after she brought forth, we do not believe, because we do not read it. Nor do we say this to condemn marriage, for virginity itself is the fruit of marriage; but because when we are dealing with saints we must not judge rashly. If we adopt possibility as the standard of judgment, we might maintain that Joseph had several wives because Abraham had, and so had Jacob, and that the Lord's brethren were the issue of those wives, an invention which some hold with a rashness which springs from audacity not from piety.

The Jameses

James, son of Zebedee (one of the Sons of Thunder)

James, son of Zebedee, was one of the 12 Apostles (Luke 6:13-16, Mark 3:16-19). He and his brother John (also an Apostle) were given the nicknames Sons of Thunder by Christ (Mark 3:16-19). His mother Salome was one of the women who followed Jesus, ministering to him, and was there when Jesus died (Matthew 27:55-56, Mark 15:40, Mark 16:1).

James, his brother John, and Peter were part of the inner circle of Christ - the group of 3 Apostles with whom Jesus was especially close, that saw him transfigured on the mountain, and with whom Jesus shared his sorrow in the garden of Gethsemane (Matthew 17:1-2, Matthew 26:36-38).

James died by Herod's hand in the book of Acts (Acts 12:1-2) around 44 AD.

James, brother of the Lord, brother of Jude, also called James the Just

James was the brother of Jesus, as well as brother of Joseph, Judas, Simon, and some sisters (Mark 6:3, Matthew 13:55). His brother Judas (also called Jude), wrote the book of Jude, and identified himself in relationship to his more famous brother James (Jude 1).

James did not believe in Jesus at first (John 7:3-5). However as time passed, James did come to believe in Christ, and was reckoned as an Apostle (Galatians 1:19). He wrote the New Testament Epistle of James, and became a leading figure in the church at Jerusalem - when the church met in a council to determine rules for Gentile Christians, James played a prominent role in the decision and laid down his judgment (Acts 15:12-13, 19-23).

Paul called James (along with Cephas and John) the pillars of the church (Galatians 2:7-9). Paul regularly went out of his way to show deference to James and sought his counsel (Acts 12:17, Acts 21:17-24, 1 Corinthians 15:3-8, Galatians 1:19).

Jerome (~393 AD), quoting Hegesippus (~180 AD), identifies James the brother of the Lord as James the Just, head of the Church at Jerusalem. [1]

According to the Jewish historian Josephus (~94 AD), James was stoned in Jerusalem, dying around 62 AD. [2]

James the Less, son of the "other Mary"

James the Less is son of a woman named Mary, and brother of Joseph/Joses (Mark 15:40, Matthew 27:56).

We know he is different than James the son of Zebedee, for Matthew identifies the mother of the sons of Zebedee and Mary the mother of James and Joseph as two separate people (Matthew 27:56).

We also know he is different James the brother of the Lord (also called James the Just). Both James the Just and James the Less have a brother named Joseph and a mother named Mary. However, the Mary who is the mother of James the less is always identified differently than Mary the mother of our Lord.

Mary, the mother of James the Less is identified as "Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses" (Mark 15:40), "Mary the mother of Joses" (Mark 15:47), "Mary the mother of James" (Mark 16:1), "Mary the mother of James and Joseph" (Matthew 27:56), "Mary Magdalene and the other Mary" (Matthew 27:61, 28:1). Note particularly that last one, where she is simply referred to as "the other Mary" while Christ appears to her in his resurrected body (Matthew 28:1-10). It's doubtful she'd be referred to so simply if it was his mother that Christ was appearing to!

MUST ADD Luke 24:10

James the less as brother of Christ?

Helvidius argued that Mary mother of james/joses was Mary mother of Jesus, because the names match up from other scriptures which mention the brothers of christ and of course a mother would go see her son buried:

What a poor and impious view we take of Mary, if we hold that when other women were concerned about the burial of Jesus, she His mother was absent; or if we invent some kind of a second Mary; and all the more because the Gospel of S. John testifies that she was there present, when the Lord upon the cross commended her, as His mother and now a widow, to the care of John. Or must we suppose that the Evangelists were so far mistaken and so far mislead us as to call Mary the mother of those who were known to the Jews as brethren of Jesus?

Jerome doesn't thing this flies:

What darkness, what raging madness rushing to its own destruction! You say that the mother of the Lord was present at the cross, you say that she was entrusted to the disciple John on account of her widowhood and solitary condition: as if upon your own showing, she had not four sons, and numerous daughters, with whose solace she might comfort herself? [...]

In any case, if she (the latter) had been the Lord's mother S. John would have allowed her the title, as everywhere else, and would not by calling her the mother of other sons have given a wrong impression. But at this stage I do not wish to argue for or against the supposition that Mary the wife of Clopas and Mary the mother of James and Joses were different women, provided it is clearly understood that Mary the mother of James and Joses was not the same person as the Lord's mother.

James the less as the apostle, son of Alphaeus?

James MacDonald makes James the Less and James the son of Alphaeus the same (take notes from his bible commentary).

Jerome:

Notice, moreover, that the Lord's brother is an apostle, since Paul says, [Galatians 1:18,19] "Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem to visit Cephas, and tarried with him fifteen days. But other of the Apostles saw I none, save James the Lord's brother." And in the same Epistle, [Galatians 2:9] "And when they perceived the grace that was given unto me, James and Cephas and John, who were reputed to be pillars," etc. And that you may not suppose this James to be the son of Zebedee, you have only to read the Acts of the Apostles, and you will find that the latter had already been slain by Herod. 

So three James were accounted as Apostles? And one (the son of Zebedee) died? So why didn't Acts/etc see the need to explicitly specify which of the other James it was referring to (the Lord's brother, or the son of Alphaeus/James the less?) Perhaps they were the same person?

James the less as some random other James?

Jerome:

If he is not an apostle, but a third James (who he can be I cannot tell), how can he be regarded as the Lord's brother, and how, being a third, can he be called less to distinguish him from greater, when greater and less are used to denote the relations existing, not between three, but between two?

Jerome's conclusion

Jerome:

The only conclusion is that the Mary who is described as the mother of James the less was the wife of Alphæus and sister of Mary the Lord's mother, the one who is called by John the Evangelist "Mary of Clopas," whether after her father, or kindred, or for some other reason. But if you think they are two persons because elsewhere we read, "Mary the mother of James the less," and here, "Mary of Clopas," you have still to learn that it is customary in Scripture for the same individual to bear different names. Raguel, Moses' father-in-law, is also called Jethro. Gedeon, without any apparent reason for the change, all at once becomes Jerubbaal. Ozias, king of Judah, has an alternative, Azarias. Mount Tabor is called Itabyrium. Again Hermon is called by the Phenicians Sanior, and by the Amorites Sanir. The same tract of country is known by three names, Negebh, Teman, and Darom in Ezekiel. Peter is also called Simon and Cephas. Judas the zealot in another Gospel is called Thaddaeus. And there are numerous other examples which the reader will be able to collect for himself from every part of Scripture.

---

Add in the titles for Mary the mother of Jesus here, from throughout Matthew/Mark

[Rewrite below, skip John and focus on children. At end, mention that it's possible that the Mary referred to is the same Mary as Mary, the wife of Clopas and thus the sister of Mary the mother of the Lord]

We have three gospel accounts that mention women looking on the cross as Jesus is crucified.

In the Gospel of John, we see that there are three people named Mary standing by the cross: the mother of Jesus, Mary Magdalene and Mary of Clopas. Furthermore, John tells us that Mary the mother of Jesus had a sister named Mary of Clopas (who was thus Jesus' aunt).

but standing by the cross of Jesus were his mother and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene. 26When Jesus saw his mother and the disciple whom he loved standing nearby, he said to his mother, “Woman, behold, your son!” 27Then he said to the disciple, “Behold, your mother!” And from that hour the disciple took her to his own home.
- John 19:25

In the Gospel of Mark, we see a group of women looking on the cross from afar off, two of which are identified as Mary Magdalen and Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses, and Salome. As the passage goes on, we see the "Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses, and Salome" further described as "Mary the mother of Joses" (Mark 15:47), "Mary the mother of James and Salome" (Mark 16:1). Never once is this Mary referred to as Mary, the mother of Jesus.

40There were also women looking on from a distance, among whom were Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses, and Salome.  41When he was in Galilee, they followed him and ministered to him, and there were also many other women who came up with him to Jerusalem...

47Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses saw where he was laid.

1When the Sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome bought spices, so that they might go and anoint him. 2And very early on the first day of the week, when the sun had risen, they went to the tomb. 3And they were saying to one another, “Who will roll away the stone for us from the entrance of the tomb?” 4And looking up, they saw that the stone had been rolled back—it was very large. 5And entering the tomb, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, dressed in a white robe, and they were alarmed. 6And he said to them, “Do not be alarmed. You seek Jesus of Nazareth, who was crucified. He has risen; he is not here. See the place where they laid him. 7But go, tell his disciples and Peter that he is going before you to Galilee. There you will see him, just as he told you.” 8And they went out and fled from the tomb, for trembling and astonishment had seized them, and they said nothing to anyone, for they were afraid.

- Mark 15:40-16:8

In the Gospel of Matthew, we see a group of women looking on the cross from a distance, and three of which are identified as Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of the sons of Zebedee. As the passage goes on, we see the "Mary the mother of James and Joseph" referred to as simply "the other Mary" (Mark 15:61, 16:1). Never once is this Mary referred to as Mary, the mother of Jesus - and it seems super unlikely that Mark would not identify her in that way, rather than simply as "the other Mary" if it was her!

50And Jesus cried out again with a loud voice and yielded up his spirit.

55There were also many women there, looking on from a distance, who had followed Jesus from Galilee, ministering to him, 56among whom were Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of James and Joseph and the mother of the sons of Zebedee.

59And Joseph took the body and wrapped it in a clean linen shroud 60and laid it in his own new tomb, which he had cut in the rock. And he rolled a great stone to the entrance of the tomb and went away. 61Mary Magdalene and the other Mary were there, sitting opposite the tomb.

1Now after the Sabbath, toward the dawn of the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went to see the tomb. 2And behold, there was a great earthquake, for an angel of the Lord descended from heaven and came and rolled back the stone and sat on it. 3His appearance was like lightning, and his clothing white as snow. 4And for fear of him the guards trembled and became like dead men. 5But the angel said to the women, “Do not be afraid, for I know that you seek Jesus who was crucified. 6He is not here, for he has risen, as he said. Come, see the place where he lay. 7Then go quickly and tell his disciples that he has risen from the dead, and behold, he is going before you to Galilee; there you will see him. See, I have told you.” 8So they departed quickly from the tomb with fear and great joy, and ran to tell his disciples. 9And behold, Jesus met them and said, “Greetings!” And they came up and took hold of his feet and worshiped him. 10Then Jesus said to them, “Do not be afraid; go and tell my brothers to go to Galilee, and there they will see me.”

- Matthew 27:50-28:10

Thus, in unifying these three gospel accounts, we see that the one whom Mark and Matthew identify as "Mary, the mother of James the less and Joseph" must be the same person as "Mary of Clopas" the "sister" of "Mary the mother of Jesus".

So in summary:

  • Mary of Clopas was sister of Mary, the mother of Jesus
  • Mary of Clopas had at least 3 kids: James the less, Joseph (Joses), and Salome
  • These kids were Jesus' cousins.

James son of Alphaeus, an Apostle

And when day came, he called his disciples and chose from them twelve, whom he named apostles: Simon, whom he named Peter, and Andrew his brother, and James and John, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James of Alphaeus, and Simon who was called the Zealot, and Judas of James, and Judas Iscariot, who became a traitor.
- Luke 6:13-16
He appointed the twelve: Simon (to whom he gave the name Peter); James the son of Zebedee and John the brother of James (to whom he gave the name Boanerges, that is, Sons of Thunder); Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus, and Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed him.
- Mark 3:16-19
And he called to him his twelve disciples and gave them authority over unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal every disease and every affliction. The names of the twelve apostles are these: first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother; Philip and Bartholomew; Thomas and Matthew the tax collector; James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus; Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed him.
- Matthew 10:1-4
And when they had entered, they went up to the upper room, where they were staying, Peter and John and James and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus and Simon the Zealot and Judas the son of James.
- Acts 1:13

Then he just... disappeared?

James, the father of Apostle Jude/Thaddeus/Judas

And when day came, he called his disciples and chose from them twelve, whom he named apostles: Simon, whom he named Peter, and Andrew his brother, and James and John, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James of Alphaeus, and Simon who was called the Zealot, and Judas the son of James, and Judas Iscariot, who became a traitor.
- Luke 6:13-16
And when they had entered, they went up to the upper room, where they were staying, Peter and John and James and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus and Simon the Zealot and Judas the son of James.
- Acts 1:13
He appointed the twelve: Simon (to whom he gave the name Peter); James the son of Zebedee and John the brother of James (to whom he gave the name Boanerges, that is, Sons of Thunder); Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus, and Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed him.
- Mark 3:16-19
And he called to him his twelve disciples and gave them authority over unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal every disease and every affliction. The names of the twelve apostles are these: first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother; Philip and Bartholomew; Thomas and Matthew the tax collector; James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus; Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed him.
- Matthew 10:1-4
[At the last supper with Jesus' disciples] Judas (not Iscariot) said to him, “Lord, how is it that you will manifest yourself to us, and not to the world?”
- John 14:22

Historical Support

209 AD: Tertullian

Said Mary was a virgin before the birth of Christ, but the act of giving birth caused her to cease to be a virgin. While not explicitly supporting this view, he clearly does not support the alternate camp (that Mary was an Ever-Virgin).

...although she was a virgin when she conceived, she was a wife when she brought forth her son
- On the Flesh of Christ, Chapter 23

~360 AD: Eunomius of Cyzicus, Arian heretic

[Secondary Source] Therefore he said, "But he knew her not until she had given birth to a son." He knew who she was after his birth. From this statement, some people, following Eunomius, think that until Mary gave birth Joseph did not have carnal relations with her, but afterwards he knew her and she gave birth to children.
- Incomplete Commentary on Matthew (Opus Imperfectum), on Matthew 1:25 (~400 AD)

~383 AD: Helvidius

None of his works survived, but his teachings are preserved in Jerome’s letter against him.

From Jerome’s letter, we find that Helvidius believed the brothers/sisters of the Lord, mentioned in the Bible, must be sons of Mary. Helvidius uses all the common modern arguments (e.g. Matthew 1:25), and supports his opinion by the writings of Tertullian and Victorinus.

390 AD: Jovinianus, heretic

[Secondary Source] He calls the Catholics Manicheans, after the manner of that Jovinian who a few years ago, as a new heretic, destroyed the virginity of the blessed Mary, and placed the marriage of the faithful on the same level with her sacred virginity.
- Augustine, Against Two Letters of the Pelagians (Book I), Chapter 4

391 AD: Bonosus, heretic

[Secondary Source] Your Reverence was perfectly justified in rebuking him [i.e. Bonosus] on the score of Mary's children, and you had good reason to be horrified at the thought that another birth might issue from the same virginal womb from which Christ was born according to the flesh. For the Lord Jesus would never have chosen to be born of a virgin if He had ever judged that she would be so incontinent as to contaminate with the seed of human intercourse the birthplace of the Lord's body, that court of the Eternal King.
- A letter written by Ambrose(?) after Bonosus was condemned by the bishops of Illyricum

Kin

References

  1. [Hegesippus' lost Commentaries book 5, quoted by Jerome in his book "On Illustrious Men", Section 2] After the apostles, James the brother of the Lord surnamed the Just was made head of the Church at Jerusalem. Many indeed are called James. This one was holy from his mother's womb. He drank neither wine nor strong drink, ate no flesh, never shaved or anointed himself with ointment or bathed. He alone had the privilege of entering the Holy of Holies, since indeed he did not use woolen vestments but linen and went alone into the temple and prayed in behalf of the people, insomuch that his knees were reputed to have acquired the hardness of camels' knees. [Note: Since only the high priest of the temple can enter the Holy of Holies once a year on Yom Kippur, this quote seems to indicate James was considered a high priest.]
  2. [Antiquities of the Jews, Book XX, Chapter 9, Section 1] So he assembled the sanhedrin of judges, and brought before them the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James, and some others, [or, some of his companions]; and when he had formed an accusation against them as breakers of the law, he delivered them to be stoned...